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云南食用蜜蜂种类调查及鉴定
赵敏;冯颖;王成业;何钊;王绍云;
1:中国林业科学研究院资源昆虫研究所 2:国家林业局资源昆虫培育与利用重点实验室
摘要:
在云南,人们有食用蜜蜂幼虫和蛹的习俗。市场上销售的蜜蜂幼虫和蛹多经热水烫过或煮过,因而缺少成虫形态,俗名易混用,食用种类长期未予明确。本文在市场调查的基础上,收集其中部分样品,通过形态学和mtDNA的COI基因部分序列初步鉴定其分类地位,以明确食用种类。结果表明,云南蜜蜂的食用集中在横断山脉南部地区,接受人群广泛,食用方式多样;云南食用本地分布的全部5种野生蜜蜂,包括东方蜜蜂(Apis cerana)、小蜜蜂(A.florea)、大蜜蜂(A.dorsata)、黑大蜜蜂(A.laboriosa)和黑小蜜蜂(A.andreniformis);基于COI序列构建的邻接法(NJ)和最大简约法(MP)系统发育树支持现有的蜜蜂属系统发育关系;现有的食用蜜蜂大多采集自野外,亟待开展遗传资源保护。本研究为食用蜜蜂的鉴定提供了数据支持,也为蜜蜂自然资源的利用和保护提供参考。
关键词:  食虫  蜜蜂俗名  细胞色素C氧化酶亚基I  系统发育
DOI:10.14188/j.ajsh.2018.02.012
分类号:S891;Q969.97
基金项目:中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费项目(riricaf2014002Z)
Investigation and identification on species of edible honeybee in Yunnan
ZHAO Min;FENG Ying;WANG Chengye;HE Zhao;WANG Shaoyun
Research Institute of Resources Insects,Chinese Academy of Forestry;Key Laboratory of Cultivation and Utilization of Resources Insects,State Forestry Administration of the P.R.China
Abstract:
Local people in Yunnan Province have custom of eating the larvae and pupae of honeybee.Several species of honeybees are consumed,but the taxonomic status is hard to be identified,for the individuals sold in open market are usually boiled larvae and pupae,lacking of adult,and their local names are easy to be misused.In this paper,morphological characteristics and partial sequence of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I gene(COI)were used to identify honeybee samples collected from local markets,based on market investigation.Results showed that people live at south of Hengduan Moutain Area prefer to eat honeybees with a variety of cooking ways,and they eat all five wild honeybee species including Apis cerana,A.florea,A.dorsata,A.laboriosaand A.andreniformis.NJ tree and MP tree based on partial COIsequence data supported the existing phylogenetic relationships of honeybees(Hymenoptera:Apinae).Honeybees sold in market are usually collected from the wild,therefore,the genetic resources of honeybees need proper protection.This study provides useful data for identification of edible honeybees,and las a foundation for utilization and protection of natural honeybee resources.
Key words:  edible insect  common name of honeybee  cytochrome C oxidase subunit I  phylogeny