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油茶地蜂的传粉生物学特性研究
邱建生;张念念;刘童童;田茂娟;谢正华;陈晓鸣;
1:贵州省林业科学研究院 2:中国林科院资源昆虫研究所
摘要:
油茶地蜂是普通油茶的主要传粉昆虫,为深入研究其传粉生物学特性,采用标准株全天观察法、杯罩法、花粉计数法,对油茶地蜂访花行为、访花过程、访花节律、携粉足构造及载粉量等传粉生物学特性进行研究。结果表明,典型的油茶地蜂访花过程呈现"双峰型"的访花节律。油茶地蜂每天进出巢3~4次。第一次回巢到达的最早时间为10:22,最后一次出巢的最晚时间为16:34。出巢到进巢的时间间隔为(1.67±0.46)h(n=27),进巢到出巢的时间为(21.43±8.09)min(n=46)。地蜂总的携粉数量为(2 036±860)粒(n=25)。地蜂携粉足的结构分为两部分,第一部分是由胫节及第一跗节上密集轮生的、较坚硬的、圆锥状毛丛组成的花粉刷;第二部分为股节外部和转节端部有羽状分枝的弧形长毛组成的花粉篮。每只携粉足上的载粉量为(1.64±0.56)mg(n=10),携带的花粉总数为(9 068±2 364)粒(n=42)。地蜂对白色有偏好。对地蜂的传粉生物学特性和普通油茶花的传粉综合征的研究表明,油茶地蜂是高度特化的传粉者,而普通油茶花的传粉综合征是泛化的,两者间构成了一种非对称的进化关系。
关键词:  访花行为习性  油茶地蜂  访花节律  传粉
DOI:10.14188/j.ajsh.2018.02.013
分类号:S794.4;S897.3;Q969.97
基金项目:贵州省高层次创新型人才培养计划“百层次人才”项目,黔科合平台人才[2016]5669;; 贵州省科技重大专项,贵州油茶产业化关键技术研究与示范,黔科合重大专项字【2009】6004
Biological characteristics of pollination of Andrena camellia Wu
QIU Jiansheng;ZHANG Niannian;LIU Tongtong;TIAN Maojuan;XIE Zhenghua;CHEN Xiaoming
Guizhou Academy of Forestry;Research Institute of Resources Insects,Chinese Academy of Forestry;
Abstract:
Andrena camellia Wu is the main pollinator of Camellia oleifera.In order to investigate the biological characteristics of pollination,the standard strain of all-day observation method,cup cover method and pollen counting method were used to study the flower visiting behavior,rhythm,carrying leg structure and carrying capacity of pollen.Typical Andrena camellia Wu presents the"double peak type"rhythms in process of flower visiting.A.camellia Wu was out of the nest 3~4 times per day.The first time back to nest was 10:22,the last time out of the nest was16:34.The average interval time between out and in the nest was(1.67±0.46)h(n=27).The average interval time between in and out the nest was(21.43±8.09)min(n=46).The structure of A.camellia Wu pollen carrying leg is divided into two parts,the first part is a pollen brush formed by tibia and dense whorled,relatively rigid,conical bristles from the first tarsus.The second part is pollen basket formed by external femur and the pinnate branch with long hair in the end of swivel.Each A.camellia Wu pollen carrying leg has(1.64±0.56)mg(n=10)and the amount are9 068±2 364 pollen grain(n=42).Color tropism test showed that A.camellia Wu have a preference for white.Study showed that the A.camellia Wu is a highly specialized pollinator,whereas pollination syndrome of Camellia oleiferais generalized.A.camellia Wu and Camellia oleifera constitute an asymmetrical evolutionary relationship between each other.
Key words:  habit of flower visiting  Andrena camellia Wu  flower visiting rhythm  pollination